Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent forms of pain among adults and children. Pain in the stomach area can be as simple as a belly ache or it can be life-threatening.
Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder that makes it difficult for food and liquid to pass into your stomach.Learn More
The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the middle of the knee that prevents the tibia (shin bone) from moving up on the femur (thigh bone). When this ligament tears it can cause the knee to give out.
Anorectal disease refers to ailments of the anus and/or rectum. The most common conditions include hemorrhoids, anal warts, anal fissures, anorectal abscesses and anal fistulas.
If a patient begins to feel pain and stiffness anywhere in their body or to have trouble moving around, it could be arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in the joints. Over time, a swollen joint can become severely damaged.
Barrett’s esophagus is a complication of chronic acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).Learn More
Gallstones, hard, pebble-like deposits that form when materials in the bile harden, are the most common cause of blocked ducts. Cancer, infection and scar tissue may also result in blocked ducts.
Poor-fitting, narrow shoes cause toes to be compressed and can lead to bunions, but patients can treat bunions by having them removed.
Carpal tunnel syndrome starts gradually with a slight aching in the wrist that can extend to the hand and forearm. Patients can treat carpal tunnel syndrome with a variety of procedures, including endoscopic carpel tunnel release surgery.
A cataract is a cloudiness of the normally transparent eye lens. It can cause a decrease in vision and may lead to eventual blindness.
Celiac disease is a genetic digestive disorder that causes damage to the small intestine, interfering with nutrient absorption from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley.
A person who has loose, watery stools more than three times a day, for longer than two weeks, is experiencing chronic diarrhea. Other symptoms include cramping, nausea, bloating and an urgent need to have a bowel movement.
Chronic liver disease is a broad term that encompasses any disease that causes the gradual destruction of liver tissue over time. There are many kinds of liver diseases, some of which are caused by viruses, like Hepatitis C. Others can be caused from longtime drug and alcohol use or even poison.
Cirrhosis is a condition that causes the slow deterioration of the liver due to scarring. Over time, the liver will malfunction and not be able to perform its primary functions of making protein, fighting infections, storing energy and cleaning blood.
Colon cancer forms in the lining of the colon. Rectal cancer forms in the lining of the rectum, the last several inches of the large intestine terminating in the anus. Either of these cancers is called colorectal cancer.Learn More
Conjunctivitis, more commonly referred to as “pink eye,” is an inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyelid and part of the eyeball.
Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem that affects approximately 30 percent of the general population and is most common in women, children and the elderly. Even though it is a common problem, constipation should not be ignored as it can have serious side-effects if it persists.
Corneal dystrophies are genetic eye disorders that occur when abnormal material gathers in the cornea. Examples include macular corneal dystrophy, map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy and Fuchs’ dystrophy.
A corneal infection, or keratitis, occurs when the cornea is damaged by a foreign object, by bacteria or by fungi from a contaminated contact lens. Keratitis can cause painful inflammation and lead to corneal scarring.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This chronic disorder causes inflammation in the digestive tract, also known as the GI tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and other symptoms.
Diabetic retinopathy refers to any damage that occurs to the eye’s retina in conjunction with long-term diabetes. (Retinopathy refers to any non-inflammatory disease of the retina.) Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among American adults.
Difficulty swallowing, also known as dysphagia, is the feeling of food “sticking” in your throat or chest and is one of the complications of acid reflux/GERD.
Diverticulosis is a condition when small pouches, called diverticula, form in the wall of the colon. This becomes more common as people get older. About half of people over the age of 60 have diverticulosis. A low-fiber diet can exert more pressure on the colon during bowel movements, which can cause these pouches to form. Diverticulosis does not cause any symptoms until they become inflamed or infected resulting in diverticulitis. These two conditions together are called diverticular disease.
Some conditions, like droopy eyelids, can gradually interfere with your eyesight. Not only do droopy eyelids make you look sad or tired, they can actually limit your field of vision.
Dry eye is caused by a lack of tears, which lubricate the eyes and clear away particles and foreign bodies.
An epidural steroid injection treats nerve irritation caused by nearby tissues pressing on the nerve. The inflamed nerve root is bathed in steroids, an anti-inflammation medicine, to decrease the irritation of the nerve root that is causing the pain.
Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus, the long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Esophageal cancer begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus and can occur anywhere in the esophagus.
Portal hypertension causes blood to be rerouted and pushed into smaller veins that cannot handle increased blood flow. This can result in the development of large, swollen veins or varices, in the stomach, rectum, umbilical area or esophagus.
Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation or swelling of the esophagus, which is the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach.
Sometimes referred to as bowel incontinence or anal incontinence, fecal incontinence is the inability to control bowel movements, causing an unintentional passing of solid or liquid stool or mucus from the rectum.
Gallstones are small, pebble-like substances that develop in the gallbladder, the small sac just below the liver in the right upper abdomen. Gallstones form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens
The term gastrointestinal (GI) refers collectively to the organs of the body that play a part in food digestion. A gastroenterologist is an internal medicine physician who has undergone additional education and training to specialize in gastroenterology, or the treatment of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract and liver.Learn More
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States, and there are an estimated 6 million cases worldwide. Glaucoma occurs when eye pressure increases and creates stress on the optic nerve. If the nerve is damaged, vision loss occurs.
Hammer toe usually affects the second toe, although it may also affect the other toes. The toe goes into a claw-like position.
Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid backs up into your esophagus. This may cause heartburn and may ultimately cause damage to the lining of the esophagus.
Heel pain is extremely common and often begins without injury. Inflammation of the connective tissue on the sole of the foot (plantar fascia) where it attaches to the heel bone is the most common cause of pain. It is often associated with a bony protrusion (heel spur) seen on X-ray studies.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that causes inflammation of the stomach, chronic gastritis, and ulcers in the stomach or small intestine.Learn More
Hemorrhoids are veins around the anus or lower rectum that have become swollen and inflamed. Hemorrhoids can happen either inside the anus or under the skin around the anus. They are common in both men and women.Learn More
Hepatitis literally means “inflammation of the liver.” Hepatitis is a viral disease which targets the liver includes several strains, but the most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States are hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease, most often spread through contact with blood infected with the Hepatitis C virus. The virus can also be passed on through childbirth or unprotected sex.
A hernia develops when an organ or tissue pushes through a weakened area in an adjacent muscle or connective tissue. Hernias are caused by a combination of pressure and an opening or weakness.
When a part of the body pushes into another area where it is not intended, this is known as a hernia. A hiatal hernia is a hernia that develops when the stomach moves above the diaphragm.
Inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, is a general term that reflects an abnormal immune response resulting in inflammation of the intestinal tract.
Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome (ICE) is a grouping of three closely linked conditions: Iris Nevus (or Cogan-Reese Syndrome), Chandler's Syndrome and Essential Progressive Iris Syndrome. There are three main features of ICE: visible changes of the iris, swelling of the cornea and the development of glaucoma, which can cause severe vision loss.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) affects the large intestine (colon) and can cause bloating, abdominal cramping and a change in bowel habits.Learn More
Jaundice is a condition that causes the whites of your eyes and skin to turn a yellowish hue. This is caused by bilirubin, a yellow chemical in hemoglobin that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Keratoconus is a progressive thinning of the cornea and is the most common cornea dystrophy in the United States, affecting one in every 2,000.
There are two forms of liver cancer. Cancer that starts in the liver is called primary liver cancer, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cancer that spreads to the liver from another organ is called metastatic liver cancer. HCC accounts for most liver cancers, and it occurs more often in men than women.
Liver disease, also called hepatic disease, refers to a number of diseases that may affect the liver and its function. The liver plays a role in the production of bile, blood-clotting factors and amino acids, and aids in the processing and storage of iron for red blood cell production.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in Americans who are 60 or older. Macular degeneration damages a person’s central vision, which is needed to see objects clearly, read and drive. Without clear vision, a person can become incapable of completing daily tasks effectively or independently.
Malabsorption is difficulty digesting food in general or, more specifically, not being able to absorb nutrients like fats, proteins, sugar or vitamins from food.
Ocular herpes is a recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. In fact, it is the most common infectious cause of corneal blindness in the country.
If you break, sprain or otherwise injure a bone, the symptoms may not always be clear. The area may be bruised or swollen, even if at first glance it is unclear whether there is a fracture. Patients can also experience numbing, tingling or even paralysis below the fracture. Sprains can occur in any joint, and even though the joint continues to function normally, there should be some swelling, pain and tenderness.
Anyone can develop osteoporosis, which makes bones brittle and more likely to break, but it is more common in older women. This disease progresses silently, and, in fact, most people remain undiagnosed until a bone breaks.
Pancreatic cancer begins when cells in the pancreas develop mutations in their DNA. These mutated cells divide uncontrollably and can spread rapidly to other parts of the body.
Sometimes, the pancreas can develop closed sacs of fluid called pancreatic cysts. Most cysts are not cancerous and do not produce any accompanying symptoms. Pseudocysts develop as a complication of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
Pancreatitis is a swelling of the pancreas, a small organ behind the stomach that produces the chemicals the body needs to digest food.
A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of the stomach or first part of the small intestine called the duodenum. When an individual has chronic peptic ulcers, it is known as peptic ulcer disease (PUD).
When skin cancer is near your eyes, it is called periocular skin cancer. Skin cancer can arise from any of the types of cells in your skin. The most common form is basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma are relatively slow growing.
Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD) is a common eye condition where the vitreous separates from the retina. Normally the vitreous, the clear gel-like substance within the eye, is in direct contact with the retina. As the eye ages, the vitreous tends to get more liquid, so PVD is a normal part of the aging process.
Pterygium (pronounced tur-IJ-ee-um) is a common eye condition that affects people who spend a lot of time outdoors. Pterygium is also known as surfer’s eye because of its common occurrence in surfers. Individuals with pterygium have a growth of pink, fleshy tissue on the white of the eye. This growth usually forms on the side of the eye closest to the nose.
Rectal bleeding should be viewed as a symptom and not a disorder itself. Most rectal bleeding is associated with a condition that can be treated.
Reflux esophagitis is one of the complications that can come from having chronic heartburn and acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophagitis is inflammation that damages the lining of the esophagus and often causes painful or difficult swallowing and chest pain.
Most common vision problems are caused by refractive errors – the eye’s inability to focus, or refract, light correctly on the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye). Refractive disorders are usually the result of an eyeball that is too short or too long, a cornea (the clear front part of your eye) that is irregularly shaped or a lens that is curved too much or too little.
The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye, sending visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. When detached, the retina is lifted or pulled from its normal position.
Rotator cuff repair is performed to fix a torn shoulder tendon or remove a bone spur. It can be performed with a large incision or with shoulder arthroscopy using many small incisions.
Shingles is a disease caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Once a patient has chickenpox, the virus stays in the body, and, as some people age, it may reappear as shingles. Shingles is not contagious - you can't “catch it.” In about 40 percent of people with shingles, the cornea will be affected.
Laryngopharyngeal reflux, also known as “silent reflux,” is another possible complication that may develop with chronic heartburn and acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Sinusitis occurs when the sinuses are infected or inflamed. The sinuses are hollow air spaces within the bones surrounding the nose. The sinuses produce mucus, which drains into the nose. But if the nose is swollen, the sinuses can block and cause pain and infection.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare, serious disorder of the skin and mucous membranes. SJS can cause serious eye problems, such as severe conjunctivitis; iritis, an inflammation inside the eye; corneal blisters and erosions; and corneal holes. In some cases it can lead to severe vision loss.
Most people have experienced some type of stomach problem or discomfort in their lifetime. A person experiencing swallowing problems, which is called dysphagia, may have difficulty swallowing foods or liquids.
An ulcer is a disruption of the surface of the skin or a mucus membrane, which results in an open sore that may heal very slowly. Ulcers can develop on many areas of the body but the most common ulcers are found in the gastrointestinal tract.
Strictures act as a barrier to food being swallowed and can eventually prevent food and even liquids from making their way down the esophagus and into the stomach. Eighty percent of esophageal strictures are related to GERD.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation in the lining of the rectum and colon. Ulcers form where inflammation has injured the cells that usually line the colon, which then may bleed and create pus.Learn More